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德牧的发展历史    阅读次数738

  History of the German Shepherd Dog

  [德国牧羊犬的历史]

  Note: This is by no means intended as an extensive history of the breed, but rather an overview of how the German Shepherd Dog as we know it today came into existence. There are many good books and websites on the subject for further study.

  [注意:本文的目的不再于研究这个品种悠久的历史演变,只是概括描述德国牧羊犬是怎样演变成今天这样一种知名品种。另有很多著作和网络资源可以研究它的悠久历史。]

  The German Shepherd Dog's long and noble history began in the late 1800's with an idea for breeding strong, intelligent, highly trainable dogs for herding and guarding sheep. Not only breeding, but breeding true to form--to a standard. Until this point, any dog showing propensity for herding was used for that purpose. Therefore, many different breeds were in use, and there was a need to pinpoint abilities and pass them on genetically.

  [德国牧羊犬悠久而辉煌的历史开始自十九世纪的创造一种强壮、智慧、非常易于接受训练的牧羊犬或守护犬的想法。(当时)不仅饲养的方法,还包括饲养的目的等原则性的内容都归纳成一个标准。直到今天,任何一种表现出放牧倾向的狗,仍然会被用于放牧。而那些被应用于放牧的许多不同的品种,需要分化出有精确能力基因遗传稳定的品种。]

  Rittmeister (Cavalry Captain) Max Emil Frederich von Stephanitz (photo 1)-- --universally accepted as the "Father of the Breed"--saw a dog in 1899 while attending a dog show in Karlsruhe, Germany; a herding dog which he felt had all the qualities he had been searching for: instinctive herding ability, high trainability, dignity, intelligence, strong build and quiet demeanor. This dog fit the motto von Stephanitz had coined for his new breed: "Utility and Intelligence", and he purchased the dog on the spot. That dog became Horand von Grafrath, the foundation dog of the German Shepherd breed, and given the designation SZ1, the very first German Shepherd Dog in the German Shepherd Dog Club, the SV. Von Stephanitz searched for *****es of Horand's type to breed with him, and being very picky, it was a hard search indeed. By carefully and selectively breeding and inbreeding, it was possible to create a line of dogs that bred true to form. Captain von Stephanitz, who had served with the Veterinary College in Berlin while in the military, used his extensive biological knowledge to help him in the science of breeding dogs.

  [被公认为是该品种之父的骑兵上尉马克思·艾米尔·费德利其·范·斯迪芬尼茨(译者:名字很长呦,中国人可以简称:范·斯迪芬尼茨上校:Max Emil Frederich von Stephanitz。参见下图1)在1899年德国卡尔斯鲁厄地区的一次狗展赛上,发现了一只符合他理想中的所有特征的领他心仪的牧羊犬:具有放牧本能、易于训练、聪明、威严、构造强健、并且(行动)具有风度。这只犬完全符合他设定的“实用和聪明”的原则,他当即购买了它。 这只狗后来被命名为霍兰德·范·格拉佛斯,也是德国牧羊犬的奠基犬,被定义为SZ1---第一只德国牧羊犬俱乐部[缩写:SV]的注册犬。范·斯迪芬尼茨上校开始为它挑选适合它的母犬,由于(上校采取的)标准非常严格,挑选工作非常艰难。上校小心谨慎地饲养和繁殖他们,并逐渐形成新的一支适合饲养标准的品种。范·斯迪芬尼茨上校在军中服役时,曾经在柏林兽医学院学习过,他广博的生物学知识帮助他科学的繁育了这个品种。]

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